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Title: The literary criticism from its inception until the fifth Hijri century
Authors: Amani Hasan Mohamad Hamad
أماني حسن محمد حمد
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: جامعة القدس المفتوحة/Al-Quds Open University
Abstract: This researchdealt with the literary criticism from its inception until the fifth Hijri century.The researcher started his work with exploring the state of criticism during the pre-Islamic era, then in the Islamic era and later in the Umayyad era, (including its three environments), to end with the Abbasid era. The research tried to recognize the features of criticism in each era, presenting models of criticism, and tracking the evolution of criticism: how it started, and where it arrived until it reached the fifth Hijri century. In the first chapter, the researcher dealt with the criticism in the pre-Islamic era, where it depended on taste, as it is the criterionfor judging the quality of the literary work, without providing any explanation or reason. The most important features of criticism in the pre-Islamic era are generalization, the absence of reasoning, partiality and brevity, since one verse is sometimes criticized of a full poem. As for the second topic of the first chapter, the researcher covered criticism in the Islamic era. The Prophet Mohammad (peace and blessings of God be upon him) had a specific position of criticism in general, and of poetry in particular.It is unfair to agree with those who say that the position of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) towards poetry is unclear.If we look deep into his position, we will find that he defamed the poetry which is contrary to the spirit of Islam and its teachings, and that type of poetry which explodes the fire of agitation, and the flame of tribal anxieties. As for the poetry that defends Islam, and is committed to good morals, honesty, it is considered as fine and should be encouraged. Some poets have lost their enthusiasm towards poetry after they directed their energies to spreading religion and conquests. Others continued to write poetry, supporting and defending Islam, such as the poet Hassan bin Thabit. Of those Righteous Caliphs, who were interested in criticism,was CaliphOmar bin Al-Khattab, (may God bless him), who preferred the poet Zuhair, and his criterion of criticism: was its free of complexity, ambiguity and honesty. In the third topicthe researcher explained that criticism in the Umayyad era was divided into three environments, namely: the environment of the Hijaz,in which criticism and taste enhanced, and its outlookdeepened. The most important poet of Hijaz environment wasOmar bin Abi Rabia, and the most important critics of Hijaz were Abdullah bin Abi Atiq and Sakina Bint Al Hussein. As for the environment of Iraq, especially in Kufa and Basra, the centered poets were the contraries’ poets (AlNaqa’id):Jarir, Al Akhtal, Al Farazdaq, and the center of linguistic criticism were Abu Omar bin Alaa, and Isaac al-Kharadmi.
Appears in Collections:Arabic Language and Literature - اللغة العربية وآدابها

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