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Dear Students,
This unit consists of four sections: Reading , grammar, language use and writing respectively. You shall read a short passage on a famous Palestinian character , Mahmoud Darwish , known as “Poet of Resistance.” This part enables you to understand a text and find main points. For grammatical component, it is limited to discuss the main uses of Present Simple and Present Continuous Tenses. The third section, language use, classifies invitations into formal and informal. Moreover, it provides you with examples on accepting and declining an invitation . Finally, the writing section covers some of Punctuation Marks.

Learning Outcomes
  • understand a reading text “Poet of Resistance”.
  • use key words in political domain.
  • use Present Simple and Present Continuous Tenses.
  • accept and decline invitations.
  • use some punctuation marks appropriately.
Sections
  • Introduction
  • Pre - reading
  • Read and Find Out
  • Read and Answer
  • Self Assessment

This is a reading text about Mahmoud Darwish, a famous Palestinian character known as “Poet of Resistance” worldwide . This text enables you to be familiar with some basic information that characterized his life and poems.
Upon completing this section, you should be able to:

  1. understand a reading text “Poet of Resistance”.
  2. use key words in political domain.

Before you read the text, you are strongly advised to work on the two activities below:

Activity (1) : Listen and look

Listen to the audio and look at the reading text as you listen.

Activity (2) : Look the words up

It is important that you know the meanings of the words in orange color in the reading text. If you do not know the meaning of a word, click on the word to know its meaning before you start reading.

Activity(3): Read and find out

Now read the text quickly, and find out an answer to each of the following questions:

  1. Why was Darwish described as Exile's Poet or Poet of Resistance?
  2. When did Darwish publish his first collection of poems, Leaves of Olives?
  3. Where did Darwish die?
  4. Where did he live ?
  5. When did he return to Palestine ?

Read the text again, very carefully this time, and make sure that you understand it very well. After you have done that, do the exercises that follow.



  1. Why was Darwish placed under house arrest?

  2. What did he work in Cairo ?

  3. What did President Abbass declare ?

Complications
Mourning
Destroyed
Published
Agreement
Editor
Interpreted
Eminent
Exile
Resignation
Resistance
Homeland
Census
Refugee
Uprooted
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ destroy something/somebody to damage something so badly that it no longer exists, works, etc.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a person who has been forced to leave their country or home, because there is a war or for political, religious or social reasons.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to leave a place where you have lived for a long time; to make somebody do this.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the country where a person was born.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the process of officially counting something, especially a country’s population.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ dislike of or opposition to a plan, an idea, etc.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the state of being sent to live in another country that is not your own, especially for political reasons or as a punishment.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (of people) famous and respected, especially in a particular profession.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a person who is in charge of a newspaper, magazine, etc., or part of one, and who decides what should be included.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to explain the meaning of something.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the act of giving up your job or position; the occasion when you do this.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ an arrangement, a promise or a contract made with somebody.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to produce a book, magazine, CD-ROM, etc. and sell it to the public.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a thing that makes a situation more complicated or difficult.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ sadness that you show and feel because somebody has died.
  • Introduction
  • Present Simple Tense
  • Present Continuous Tense
  • Present Simple VS. Present Continuous
  • Exercises
  • Self Assessment

We need verb tenses to use them when we talk. For instance, the present simple tense is used to express daily routines or habits. It is also used to describe people, places, things, events, states, and facts. There are some adverbs of frequency that are used with this tense and they will be presented in this unit. On the other hand, we need another tense to express ongoing activities or actions that are taking place now or at the moment of speaking. Actions or changes that are happening around us in the world. In this case, the present continuous has to be used to describe such actions or events.

Upon completing this section, you should be able to

  1. Express habitual actions or routines and facts by using the present simple tense.
  2. Recognize how to express ongoing activities and changes happening in the world by using the present progressive tense.

Activity(1): Watch and find out
Watch this video and find out the answer to the following questions:

  • When do we use the present simple tense?
  • How do we form the present simple tense?
  1. Sami the newspaper every day. (read)
  2. We always to school on foot. (go)
  3. I often my mother at home.(help)
  4. Suzan always her homework by herself. (do)
  5. Jerusalem a beautiful city.(be)
  6. The Jordan River into the Dead Sea. (flow)
  7. Ben usually television after school. (watch)
  8. The child every night because she is sick.(cry)

Activity(2): Watch and find out
Watch this video and find out the answer to the following questions:

  • When do we use the present continuous tense?
  • How do we form the present continuous tense?

Example:

Read this live TV report and give the correct form of the verbs in parentheses. The report is about a search for a boy lost in the desert. The reporter is describing things as he sees them.

Three men (carry) many things down to the Land Rover where I (wait) for them. Captain Ahmed, the head of the team (give) the men instructions and advice. The three men (get) their bags ready. And now, ladies and gentlemen, at exactly 4 p.m., we (leave) to find out about the lost boy. We have been out here for over half an hour now, and everything (go) well. But, wait! what (happen) ? The captain (stand) at the front of the Land Rover (point) at something. A strange thing (move) slowly towards us.Oh! What could it be?

Activity (3): Compare

Compare between the two sentences below:

  • Tom reads a newspaper every day.
  • Muna is reading a book now.

Put the verbs in parentheses in the correct form using simple present or present continuous.

  1. Sameer an old friend of mine. (be)
  2. Huda at the back of the room now. (sit)
  3. Hamad to Europe every summer. (go)
  4. My friends nightshifts now. We will not find them at home. (work)
  5. Our dogs more at night.(bark)
  6. Not all that is gold.(glitter)
  7. John to school at the moment. (cycle)
  8. My parents a lot. (travel)
  9. Smoking cancer, so try to avoid it. (cause)
  10. Fareed is a successful businessman. He a lot of money these days.(make)

1. Ali /  do /  exercises /  now/  is/  are/  doing/  some.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

2. shopping /  They /  are .

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

3. My mother /  dinner /  usually /  prepares.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

4. The guests /  have /  lunch /  are/  having.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Look at the picture and use either the simple present form or the present continuous:

Iyas is eight . He (dislike) visiting the dentist. However, he (sit) in the dentist’s chair now. He (tremble) because he is afraid of the dentist. The dentist (pull) out a lot of teeth everyday.
He (wear) a white coat when he is at work; he (wear) one now. He (talk) to Iyas. He (want) Iyas to come to see him at least once every year.

  • Introduction
  • Formal Invitation
  • Informal Invitation
  • Responding to Invitation
  • Exercises
  • Self Assessment

Invitation is divided into two types: Informal and formal. An invitation may be as simple as asking a friend to join you for a cup of tea. This is called “informal invitation”, (i.e. inviting friends, neighbors, relatives to an informal occasion). On the other hand, you may get invited to a formal dinner in honor of an important person who is visiting your country. This is a case of formal invitation. Of course, there are several ways of extending formal and informal invitations in English. Through this section ,various English expressions used to invite people shall be discussed.

Upon completing this section, you should be able to:

  1. distinguish formal and informal invitations.
  2. accept an invitation.
  3. decline an invitation.

Formal invitation is a more polite way of asking for people you don't know that well. I was wondering if you would like to join us for a meal? Having said that, it is your turn to work on activity (1) below.

Activity (1): Watch and fill

Watch the following video then fill in the blank with the expressions of invitation.

  • Omer     : to go with me to Suzan graduation party next Monday?
  • Huda     : to…
  • Omer     : Great!
  • Huda     : What time is the party?
  • Omer     : It is at 8:30, so I will pick you up at 8:15.
  • Huda     : Okay. Do I need to bring something with me?
  • Omer     : No. I bought a present for her.

Examples of formal invitation

  • Would you like to go to the mall Saturday night?
  • Will you see a movie with me?
  • I was wondering if we can see a concert tonight.
  • I would like to invite you for dinner tonight.
  • I was wondering if you would like to join us for a meal.
  • I thought you might like to try some.
  • We would like to invite you to dinner for local cuisine.

Informal invitation is a less polite way of asking for people normally used for friends and family. For examples, Why not come round for a drink? What about going out for a meal? Why not join us for a drink? Activity (2) below is a good example of informal invitation.

Activity (2): Watch and fill

Watch the following video then fill in the blank with the expressions of invitation

  • Lina : Lama, are you doing anything tonight?
  • Lama : Not really. Why?
  • Lina : I’m going to Nablus tonight. you want to come with me.
  • Lama : Nablus! What do you have there?
  • Lina : My brother, Sami, invited me to his birthday party.
  • Lama :
  • Lina : My mother is going to go to Amman with my father tonight. I cannot cook.
  • Lama : . Where?
  • Lina : I heard Abu Mazen Restaurant is excellent. to go there?
  • Lama :
  • Lina : Okay. I’ll pick you up at your house at seven.
  • Lama : Okay, see you then.

Example of informal invitation

  • Do you want to go to the zoo?
  • How about going to the mall together?
  • Let’s have dinner on Sunday.
  • Let’s play tennis together.
  • Why not come round for a drink?
  • What about going out for a meal?
  • Why not join us for a drink?

When responding to invitations, you often use any of the following common expressions:

  • Sure. What time?
  • I'd love to, thanks.
  • That's very kind of you, thanks.
  • That sounds lovely, thank you.
  • Sounds like a good idea.
  • Thanks for your invitation. I'd be delighted to.
  • Yes, thanks. That would be great/wonderful.
  • Yes,I would.
  • I’d like to.
  • Okay.
  • I can't.  I have to ………………
  • That's very kind of you, but ……
  • Well, I'd love to, but ……
  • I'm really sorry, but
  • I'm awfully/terribly sorry. I have other plans for that night.
  • I'd really like to, but I have ……
  • Thanks for asking, but I'm afraid ……………
  • Sorry. I'm already …………………
  • Sounds good. But i can’t.
  • No, thanks.
  • I’d love to, but I can’t.
  • I would love to but I can’t.
  • No, but thanks for inviting me.
  • No, I’d better not.
  • sounds great but I don’t think I can.

When you decline an invitation, it is common to give an excuse. For example:

  • I’d love to, but i can’t. I have an exam tomorrow.
  • Sounds good, but i don’t think i can. I have to work late.
  • No, i’d better not. My parents won’t allow me to go.
  • I’m afraid i can’t. I have other plans.

A: Would you like to come over for dinner tonight?
B: (Decline the invitation)

A: “OK, then how about getting together for coffee tomorrow afternoon?”
B: (Accept the invitation)

A: (Invite your friend)


B: “I’d love to, but I’m afraid I have another commitment this evening. Maybe another time.”

  1. Sami: to come over for dinner?
    Hassan: Sure, I’d love to.
  2. Bill: don’t have dinner with us tomorrow?
    John: ; I’m meeting my boss tomorrow evening.
  3. Susan: John and I you and James to come over for coffee on Thursday evening.
    Mary: ! I’m sure John would that.
  4. Laila: Do you think you can for dinner tonight?
    Mona: I really can’t tell. I need to check with my husband.
  5. Hussein: My wife and I to have you for dinner tonight.
    James: Thanks! I’d that.
  • Introduction
  • Punctuation Marks
  • Exercises
  • Self Assessment

When we talk we have pauses and we also use body language to show some feelings. However, in writing the punctuation marks are playing a crucial role in doing so. What are punctuation marks? Punctuation marks are symbols that are used to aid the clarity and comprehension of written language. Some common punctuation marks that will be discussed in this section are the full stop, comma, question mark, exclamation mark and quotation marks.

Upon completing this section, you should be able to recognize how to use some punctuation marks appropriately.

There are many punctuation marks in English. However, in this section we will learn the uses of some punctuation marks that are used more commonly in language which are: the full stop, the question mark ,the exclamation mark, the comma and the quotation marks.

Activity (1): Watch and correct the mistake
Watch this video then find and correct the mistakes in the following sentences:

  1. What a hectic day?
  2. What is your name.
  3. He asked: (What do you know about Mahmoud Darwish!)
  4. I bought some bananas cucumbers onions tomatoes and apples
  5. My teacher. Joy. is a nice person,

My friend Tom had an accident yesterday. It was really awful While he was driving fast he hit a big tree And his car crashed The next few days he was getting better When I visited him at the hospital I met his mother and she was a nice person I asked him about the accident and he said I was texting and suddenly I lost control and hit my car

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Al-Quds Open University
Open Learning Center - OLC